Gene Symbol: PPARgamma
Description: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma
Alias: CIMT1, GLM1, NR1C3, PPARG1, PPARG2, PPARgamma, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPAR-gamma, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 3, peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor gamma variant 1
Species: human
Products:     PPARgamma

Top Publications

  1. Lee G, Elwood F, McNally J, Weiszmann J, Lindstrom M, Amaral K, et al. T0070907, a selective ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, functions as an antagonist of biochemical and cellular activities. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19649-57 pubmed
    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma (NR1C3)) plays a central role in adipogenesis and is the molecular target for the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of antidiabetic drugs...
  2. Al Shali K, House A, Hanley A, Khan H, Harris S, Zinman B, et al. Genetic variation in PPARG encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Stroke. 2004;35:2036-40 pubmed
    ..Also, whereas IMT and TPV are somewhat correlated with each other, they might also represent distinct traits with discrete determinants representing different stages of atherogenesis. ..
  3. Haraguchi G, Kobayashi Y, Brown M, Tanaka A, Isobe M, Gianturco S, et al. PPAR(alpha) and PPAR(gamma) activators suppress the monocyte-macrophage apoB-48 receptor. J Lipid Res. 2003;44:1224-31 pubmed
    ..real-time PCR, Northern, Western, and functional cellular lipid accumulation assays, we show that PPARalpha and PPARgamma activators significantly suppress the expression of apoB-48R mRNA in human THP-1 and blood-borne monocyte-..
  4. Argmann C, Sawyez C, McNeil C, Hegele R, Huff M. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor results in net depletion of cellular cholesteryl esters in macrophages exposed to oxidized lipoproteins. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:475-82 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a ligand-activated transcription factor, has pleiotropic effects, including regulation of macrophage differentiation and lipid homeostasis...
  5. Shrestha U, Karimi O, Crusius J, Zhou F, Wang Z, Chen Z, et al. Distribution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma polymorphisms in Chinese and Dutch patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010;16:312-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding was not replicated in the Dutch population. Further studies are necessary to explore the functional implication of the PPAR-gamma C161T polymorphism in Chinese UC patients. ..
  6. Xita N, Lazaros L, Georgiou I, Tsatsoulis A. The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma gene is not associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome. Hormones (Athens). 2009;8:267-72 pubmed
    ..The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma gene is not involved in the pathogenesis or the phenotypic expression of PCOS. ..
  7. Cho Y, Hong S, Jin Q, Wang L, Lee J, Gavrilova O, et al. Histone methylation regulator PTIP is required for PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha expression and adipogenesis. Cell Metab. 2009;10:27-39 pubmed publisher
    b>PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha cooperate to control preadipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis). However, the factors that regulate PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha expression during adipogenesis remain largely unclear...
  8. Szatmari I, Pap A, Rühl R, Ma J, Illarionov P, Besra G, et al. PPARgamma controls CD1d expression by turning on retinoic acid synthesis in developing human dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2351-62 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that PPARgamma, turns on retinoic acid synthesis by inducing the expression of retinol and retinal metabolizing enzymes such as ..
  9. Zhang H, Zhu S, Chen J, Tang Y, Hu H, Mohan V, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? polymorphism Pro12Ala Is associated with nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: evidence from meta-analysis of 18 studies. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1388-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The association between the polymorphism and DN risk has also been widely studied recently, but no consensus was available up to now...

More Information

Publications175 found, 100 shown here

  1. Hung Y, Lee N, Lin S, Chang H, Wu C, Chang C, et al. Effects of PPAR? and RBP4 gene variants on metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients with anti-retroviral therapy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49102 pubmed publisher
    ..The impacts of PPAR? C1431T and Pro12Ala polymorphisms on metabolism in HIV-infected patients are not significant. RBP4 -803GA polymorphism has increased risk of insulin resistance in HIV-infected patients with anti-retroviral therapy. ..
  2. Wu Z, Lou Y, Jin W, Liu Y, Lu L, Lu G. The C161T polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene (PPAR?) is associated with risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:3101-12 pubmed publisher
    ..11, P = 0.913). Taken together, our results revealed the PPAR? C161T polymorphism might play a moderate protective effect on developing CAD among Chinese, but not among Caucasians. ..
  3. Curti M, Rogero M, Baltar V, Barros C, Siqueira Catania A, Ferreira S. FTO T/A and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? Pro12Ala polymorphisms but not ApoA1 -75 are associated with better response to lifestyle intervention in Brazilians at high cardiometabolic risk. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2013;11:169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data did not support benefits of the variant allele of ApoA1 -75G/A polymorphism. Further studies are needed to direct lifestyle intervention to subsets of individuals at cardiometabolic risk. ..
  4. Wang X, Sun Y, Wong J, Conklin D. PPAR? maintains ERBB2-positive breast cancer stem cells. Oncogene. 2013;32:5512-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, GW9662 pre-treatment inhibits the tumor-seeding ability of BT474 cells. Together, these results show that the PPAR? pathway is critical for the cancer stem cell properties of ERBB2-positive breast cancer cells. ..
  5. Pei Q, Huang Q, Yang G, Zhao Y, Yin J, Song M, et al. PPAR-?2 and PTPRD gene polymorphisms influence type 2 diabetes patients' response to pioglitazone in China. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013;34:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Diabetes risk alleles in PPAR-?2 (rs1801282) and PTPRD (rs17584499) are associated with pioglitazone therapeutic efficacy. ..
  6. Wang X, Liu J, Ouyang Y, Fang M, Gao H, Liu L. The association between the Pro12Ala variant in the PPARγ2 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in a Chinese population. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71985 pubmed publisher
    ..64, 95% CI 0.42-0.96; P = 0.030). Our results suggested that the presence of the Ala allele may contribute to improved insulin secretory capacity and may confer protection from type 2 diabetes and obesity in the Chinese population. ..
  7. Zhang R, Wang J, Yang R, Sun J, Chen R, Luo H, et al. Effects of Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?2 gene on metabolic syndrome risk: a meta-analysis. Gene. 2014;535:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Pro12Ala may affect the single component of metabolic syndrome. A large, well designed study is required to more adequately assess the role for Pro12Ala polymorphism on metabolic syndrome. ..
  8. Yang J, Gong H, Liu W, Tao T. The association of Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 gene with the metabolic characteristics in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013;6:1894-902 pubmed
    ..The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome Proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 PPAR?2) gene that account for metabolic dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remain elusive...
  9. Trombetta M, Bonetti S, Boselli M, Miccoli R, Trabetti E, Malerba G, et al. PPARG2 Pro12Ala and ADAMTS9 rs4607103 as "insulin resistance loci" and "insulin secretion loci" in Italian individuals. The GENFIEV study and the Verona Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Study (VNDS) 4. Acta Diabetol. 2013;50:401-8 pubmed publisher
    We investigated cross-sectionally whether the type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk alleles of rs1801282 (PPARG2) and rs4607103 (ADAMTS9) were associated with T2DM and/or insulin sensitivity (IS) and beta cell function (?F) in Italians without and ..
  10. Domenici F, Brochado M, Martinelli A, Zucoloto S, da Cunha S, Vannucchi H. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma2 polymorphisms in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a study in Brazilian patients. Gene. 2013;529:326-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We also documented more advanced fibrosis in the Leu162Val SNP. The obtained data suggest that Pro12Ala SNP may result in protection against liver injury and that Leu162Val SNP may be involved in the progression of NAFLD. ..
  11. D az Gandarilla J, Osorio Trujillo C, Hern ndez Ram rez V, Talam s Rohana P. PPAR activation induces M1 macrophage polarization via cPLA?-COX-2 inhibition, activating ROS production against Leishmania mexicana. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:215283 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the above data, we conclude that PPAR agonists used in this work induces M1 macrophages polarization via inhibition of cPLA2 and the increase of aggressive microbicidal activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
  12. Bhatt S, Nigam P, Misra A, Guleria R, Luthra K, Pandey R, et al. Association of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? gene with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian Indians residing in north India. Gene. 2013;512:143-7 pubmed publisher
    ..64 (95% CI: 1.09-2.45, p=0.05)]. Asian Indians in north India carrying the alleles Ala and T of PPAR? (Pro12Ala and C161T) polymorphisms are predisposed to develop NAFLD. ..
  13. Bhatt S, Misra A, Sharma M, Luthra K, Guleria R, Pandey R, et al. Ala/Ala genotype of Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?2 gene is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in Asian Indians. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2012;14:828-34 pubmed publisher
    ..2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-12.9) and IR (OR, 3.6, 95% CI: 1.04-12.4). The Ala/Ala genotype of the PPAR-?2 gene is associated with obesity and IR in Asian Indians without diabetes living in north India. ..
  14. Arnaiz Villena A, Fernández Honrado M, Areces C, Enriquez de Salamanca M, Abd El Fatah Khalil S, Coca C, et al. Amerindians show no association of PPAR-?2 gene Ala12 allele and obesity: an "unthrifty" variant population genetics. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:1767-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This may suggest that appearance of Ala12 allele occurred after populations adapted to an agricultural feeding. ..
  15. Gu S, Liu M, Guo Z, Wu M, Chen Q, Zhou Z, et al. Gene-gene interactions among PPAR?/?/? polymorphisms for hypertriglyceridemia in Chinese Han population. Gene. 2013;515:272-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05), which indicated a potential gene-gene interaction among PPAR-?/?/? polymorphisms. The results suggest that PPAR-?/?/? polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of hypertriglyceridemia independently and/or in an interactive manner. ..
  16. Szalárdy L, Zadori D, Tánczos E, Simu M, Bencsik K, Vecsei L, et al. Elevated levels of PPAR-gamma in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurosci Lett. 2013;554:131-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Corroborating with prior experimental findings, these results may contribute to our understanding about the role of PPAR? in MS, and may implicate this protein as a potential CSF biomarker of the disease. ..
  17. Jahrling J, Hernandez C, Denner L, Dineley K. PPAR? recruitment to active ERK during memory consolidation is required for Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive enhancement. J Neurosci. 2014;34:4054-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings implicate a previously unidentified PPAR?-pERK complex that provides a molecular mechanism for the convergence of these pathways during cognitive enhancement, thereby offering new targets for therapeutic development in AD. ..
  18. Zhang M, Rego D, Moshkova M, Kebir H, Chruscinski A, Nguyen H, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? and -? regulate IFN? and IL-17A production by human T cells in a sex-specific way. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:9505-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our observations indicate that human T cells exhibit a sex difference in the production of IFN? and IL-17A that may be driven by expressions of PPAR? and PPAR?. ..
  19. Wu Z, Lou Y, Jin W, Liu Y, Lu L, Lu G. The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 gene (PPAR?2) is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e53105 pubmed publisher
    ..12, P = 0.91). Our results demonstrated that the PPAR?2 Pro12Ala polymorphism might be risk-conferring locus for the progression of CAD among Caucasians, but not among Asians. ..
  20. Lu X, Bijli K, Ramirez A, Murphy T, Kleinhenz J, Hart C. Hypoxia downregulates PPAR? via an ERK1/2-NF-?B-Nox4-dependent mechanism in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;63:151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also indicate that restoration of PPAR? activity with pharmacological ligands may provide a novel therapeutic approach in selected forms of PH. ..
  21. Shrivastav S, Kino T, Cunningham T, Ichijo T, Schubert U, Heinklein P, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 viral protein R suppresses transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} and inhibits adipocyte differentiation: implications for HIV-associated lipodystrophy. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:234-47 pubmed
    ..protein viral protein R (Vpr) on the activity of the peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and tissue insulin sensitivity...
  22. Falcetti E, Hall S, Phillips P, Patel J, Morrell N, Haworth S, et al. Smooth muscle proliferation and role of the prostacyclin (IP) receptor in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:1161-70 pubmed publisher
    ..PPAR? may represent a previously unrecognized pathway by which these agents inhibit smooth muscle proliferation. ..
  23. Thomas A, Davies N, Moir H, Watkeys L, Ruffino J, Isa S, et al. Exercise-associated generation of PPAR? ligands activates PPAR? signaling events and upregulates genes related to lipid metabolism. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012;112:806-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, exercise-triggered monocyte PPAR? activation may constitute an additional rationale for prescribing exercise to type 2 diabetes patients...
  24. Herrmann S, Ringel J, Wang J, Staessen J, Brand E. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 polymorphism Pro12Ala is associated with nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: The Berlin Diabetes Mellitus (BeDiaM) Study. Diabetes. 2002;51:2653-7 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest a protective effect of the Ala12 allele in relation to diabetic nephropathy. ..
  25. Vogels N, Mariman E, Bouwman F, Kester A, Diepvens K, Westerterp Plantenga M. Relation of weight maintenance and dietary restraint to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2, glucocorticoid receptor, and ciliary neurotrophic factor polymorphisms. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:740-6 pubmed
  26. Bennett A, Sovio U, Ruokonen A, Martikainen H, Pouta A, Hartikainen A, et al. No evidence that established type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants in the PPARG and KCNJ11 genes have pleiotropic effects on early growth. Diabetologia. 2008;51:82-5 pubmed
    ..These findings do not support the notion that there are shared genetic determinants of low birthweight and adult diabetes. ..
  27. Wei J, Ghosh A, Sargent J, Komura K, Wu M, Huang Q, et al. PPAR? downregulation by TGFß in fibroblast and impaired expression and function in systemic sclerosis: a novel mechanism for progressive fibrogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13778 pubmed publisher
  28. Razquin C, Marti A, Martinez J. Evidences on three relevant obesogenes: MC4R, FTO and PPAR?. Approaches for personalized nutrition. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:136-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The advances in this field are expected to open new ways in genome-customized diets for obesity prevention and therapy following personalized approaches. ..
  29. Liu H, Zang C, Fenner M, Possinger K, Elstner E. PPARgamma ligands and ATRA inhibit the invasion of human breast cancer cells in vitro. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2003;79:63-74 pubmed
    ..One of the nuclear hormone receptors (NHR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis ..
  30. Rodríguez Esparragón F, Rodriguez Perez J, Macías Reyes A, Alamo Santana F. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2-Pro12Ala and endothelial nitric oxide synthase-4a/bgene polymorphisms are associated with essential hypertension. J Hypertens. 2003;21:1649-55 pubmed
    ..This effect manifested only in those subjects with normal homocysteine plasma values. Our findings suggest complex genotype-environmental interactions on hypertensive risk. ..
  31. Barz T, Hoffmann A, Panhuysen M, Spengler D. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is a Zac target gene mediating Zac antiproliferation. Cancer Res. 2006;66:11975-82 pubmed
    ..Here, applying genome-wide expression analysis, we identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) as a new bona fide Zac target gene, which is induced by direct Zac binding to the proximal PPARgamma1 promoter...
  32. Reddy R. Immunomodulatory role of PPAR-gamma in alveolar macrophages. J Investig Med. 2008;56:522-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these observations point to PPAR-gamma in the context of the alveolar macrophage as a crucial factor in limiting excessive and possibly injurious inflammation in the lung. ..
  33. Chistiakov D, Potapov V, Khodirev D, Shamkhalova M, Shestakova M, Nosikov V. The PPARgamma Pro12Ala variant is associated with insulin sensitivity in Russian normoglycaemic and type 2 diabetic subjects. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2010;7:56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation strongly supports the implication of the PPARG Pro12Ala in insulin resistance and T2D in a Russian population. ..
  34. Huang X, Zhao J, Zhao T. Effects of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma 2 gene Pro12Ala polymorphism on fasting blood lipids: a meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. 2011;215:136-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our meta-analysis also supports that subjects with genotype AlaAla have lower blood TG than subjects with genotype ProPro in Caucasians. ..
  35. Ramakrishnan L, Sachdev H, Sharma M, Abraham R, Prakash S, Gupta D, et al. Relationship of APOA5, PPAR? and HL gene variants with serial changes in childhood body mass index and coronary artery disease risk factors in young adulthood. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:68 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the polymorphisms had any significant relationship with birth weight or serial changes in anthropometry from birth to adulthood in this cohort. ..
  36. Marx N, Kehrle B, Kohlhammer K, Grüb M, Koenig W, Hombach V, et al. PPAR activators as antiinflammatory mediators in human T lymphocytes: implications for atherosclerosis and transplantation-associated arteriosclerosis. Circ Res. 2002;90:703-10 pubmed
    ..The present study investigated whether activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha and PPARgamma, with their known antiinflammatory effects, might regulate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in human ..
  37. Huguenin G, Rosa G. The Ala allele in the PPAR-gamma2 gene is associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Caucasians and improved insulin sensitivity in overweight subjects. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:488-97 pubmed publisher
  38. Lei H, Chen M, Yang W, Chiu M, Chen M, Tai T, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 Pro12Ala gene variant is strongly associated with larger body mass in the Taiwanese. Metabolism. 2000;49:1267-70 pubmed
    ..These results need to be confirmed in future studies, as a linkage disequilibrium of this variant with other mutations cannot be ruled out. ..
  39. Yan Z, Zhu Z, Shen C, Zhao Z, Ni Y, Zhong J, et al. [Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma C-161T polymorphism and carotid artery atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2004;84:543-7 pubmed
    To assess the relationship between PPAR gamma C161-T polymorphism and Carotid Atherosclerosis in metabolic Syndrome (MS)...
  40. Rangwala S, Lazar M. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in diabetes and metabolism. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2004;25:331-6 pubmed
    ..It might be possible to dissociate the anti-diabetic and adverse effects through selective modulation of PPAR-gamma activity. ..
  41. Vogel U, Christensen J, Dybdahl M, Friis S, Hansen R, Wallin H, et al. Prospective study of interaction between alcohol, NSAID use and polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory response in relation to risk of colorectal cancer. Mutat Res. 2007;624:88-100 pubmed
    ..02). Moreover, an interaction between DLG5 R30Q and NSAID use was found (P for interaction=0.02). Our results do not suggest that inborn variations in the inflammatory response play any major role in risk of colorectal cancer. ..
  42. Ek J, Andersen G, Urhammer S, Hansen L, Carstensen B, Borch Johnsen K, et al. Studies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene in relation to insulin sensitivity among glucose tolerant caucasians. Diabetologia. 2001;44:1170-6 pubmed
    ..The Ala-allele of the PPAR-gamma2 polymorphism is associated with improved whole body insulin sensitivity among Swedish Caucasians. ..
  43. Feige J, Gelman L, Rossi D, Zoete V, Métivier R, Tudor C, et al. The endocrine disruptor monoethyl-hexyl-phthalate is a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma modulator that promotes adipogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19152-66 pubmed
    ..structural and functional analyses that demonstrate how monoethyl-hexyl-phthalate (MEHP) directly activates PPARgamma and promotes adipogenesis, albeit to a lower extent than the full agonist rosiglitazone...
  44. Yong E, Li J, Liu M. Single gene contributions: genetic variants of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (isoforms alpha, beta/delta and gamma) and mechanisms of dyslipidemias. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2008;19:106-12 pubmed publisher
    ..They provide attractive targets for gene-environment interventions to reduce the burden of metabolic disease. ..
  45. Guan H, Ishizuka T, Chui P, Lehrke M, Lazar M. Corepressors selectively control the transcriptional activity of PPARgamma in adipocytes. Genes Dev. 2005;19:453-61 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is the master regulator of adipogenesis as well as the target of thiazolidinedione (TZD) antidiabetic drugs...
  46. Willer C, Bonnycastle L, Conneely K, Duren W, Jackson A, Scott L, et al. Screening of 134 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with type 2 diabetes replicates association with 12 SNPs in nine genes. Diabetes. 2007;56:256-64 pubmed
    ..03), although we also replicated 4 of 58 SNPs from genes that had only one previous report of association. ..
  47. Zafarmand M, van der Schouw Y, Grobbee D, de Leeuw P, Bots M. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 P12A polymorphism and risk of acute myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke: a case-cohort study and meta-analyses. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4:427-36 pubmed
    ..Also our study shows that the polymorphism has no association with IS risk. ..
  48. Stumvoll M, Haring H. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism. Diabetes. 2002;51:2341-7 pubmed
    ..The precise understanding of its mechanism may lead to novel diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic approaches for improving the management of type 2 diabetes. ..
  49. Iwata E, Yamamoto I, Motomura T, Tsubakimori S, Nohnen S, Ohmoto M, et al. The association of Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPARgamma2 with lower carotid artery IMT in Japanese. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003;62:55-9 pubmed
    ..b>PPARgamma has been identified as a key regulator of adipogenesis...
  50. Tomaru T, Steger D, Lefterova M, Schupp M, Lazar M. Adipocyte-specific expression of murine resistin is mediated by synergism between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6116-25 pubmed publisher
    ..contains a binding site for the master adipogenic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), and binds endogenous PPARgamma together with its partner retinoid-X receptor alpha (RXRalpha)...
  51. Honka M, Vänttinen M, Iozzo P, Virtanen K, Lautamaki R, Hallsten K, et al. The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARgamma2 gene is associated with hepatic glucose uptake during hyperinsulinemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2009;58:541-6 pubmed publisher
    The Ala12 allele of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene (PPARG2) has been associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and increased whole-body and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in ..
  52. Srámková D, Kunesova M, Hainer V, Hill M, Vcelak J, Bendlova B. Is a Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARgamma2 gene related to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Czech population?. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;967:265-73 pubmed
    ..However, the present data show that fasting insulin concentrations are lower in diabetics with the 12Ala allele than in those without it. This finding provides evidence that the polymorphism may influence glucose homeostasis. ..
  53. Sanada K, Iemitsu M, Murakami H, Tabata I, Yamamoto K, Gando Y, et al. PPAR?2 C1431T genotype increases metabolic syndrome risk in young men with low cardiorespiratory fitness. Physiol Genomics. 2011;43:103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that the CC genotype of C1431T in the PPAR?2 gene together with low cardiorespiratory fitness may increase the risk of MetS in younger men (age < 40 yr), even with adjustment for age. ..
  54. Burgermeister E, Tencer L, Liscovitch M. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma upregulates caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 expression in human carcinoma cells. Oncogene. 2003;22:3888-900 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear receptor for eicosanoids that promotes differentiation of human epithelial and mesenchymal cells in vitro and in vivo...
  55. Dunn Albanese L, Ackerman W, Xie Y, Iams J, Kniss D. Reciprocal expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and cyclooxygenase-2 in human term parturition. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190:809-16 pubmed
    ..PPAR-gamma is highly expressed in term intrauterine tissues. In fetal membranes, PPAR-gamma levels are reduced once active labor commences, coincidental with a relative increase in COX-2 expression. ..
  56. Maeda A, Gohda T, Funabiki K, Horikoshi S, Tomino Y. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene polymorphism is associated with serum triglyceride levels and body mass index in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Lab Anal. 2004;18:317-21 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) controls adipocyte differentiation and regulates lipid and glucose homeostasis. Therefore, the PPARgamma gene may affect insulin sensitivity and resistance...
  57. Zouari Bouassida K, Chouchane L, Jellouli K, Cherif S, Haddad S, Gabbouj S, et al. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptorgamma2 (PPARgamma2) Pro12Ala variant: lack of association with type 2 diabetes in obese and non obese Tunisian patients. Diabetes Metab. 2005;31:119-23 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the PPARgamma2 gene is unlikely a major gene for type 2 diabetes mellitus or obesity in Tunisian subjects. ..
  58. Tontonoz P, Graves R, Budavari A, Erdjument Bromage H, Lui M, Hu E, et al. Adipocyte-specific transcription factor ARF6 is a heterodimeric complex of two nuclear hormone receptors, PPAR gamma and RXR alpha. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:5628-34 pubmed
    ..the ARF6 complex as a heterodimer of the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha) and the murine peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma)...
  59. Nelson T, Fingerlin T, Moss L, Barmada M, Ferrell R, Norris J. The PPARgamma Pro12Ala polymorphism is not associated with body mass index or waist circumference among Hispanics from Colorado. Ann Nutr Metab. 2007;51:252-7 pubmed
    ..WC) differ by possession of the Ala allele of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) Pro12Ala polymorphism, and second, to determine if dietary fat intake and physical activity moderate these ..
  60. Jorsal A, Tarnow L, Lajer M, Ek J, Hansen T, Pedersen O, et al. The PPAR gamma 2 Pro12Ala variant predicts ESRD and mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Mol Genet Metab. 2008;94:347-51 pubmed publisher
    ..040). In conclusion, the Pro12Ala polymorphism is not associated with type 1 diabetic nephropathy. The Ala-allele is associated with enhanced decline in GFR and predicts ESRD and all-cause mortality in patients with nephropathy. ..
  61. de Kort S, Hokken Koelega A. The PPAR-gamma Pro12Ala polymorphism associates with weight gain during GH-treatment in short children born small for gestational age. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;162:49-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The Ala12 variant of the PPAR-gamma gene is associated with higher weight gain during GH treatment but not with changes in determinants of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in Caucasian subjects born SGA. ..
  62. Passaro A, Dalla Nora E, Marcello C, Di Vece F, Morieri M, Sanz J, et al. PPAR? Pro12Ala and ACE ID polymorphisms are associated with BMI and fat distribution, but not metabolic syndrome. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011;10:112 pubmed publisher
    ..A gene interaction exists between Pro12Ala and ACE I/D on BMI and fat mass. Further studies are needed to assess the contribution of Pro12Ala polymorphism in adiposity distribution. ..
  63. Krogsdam A, Nielsen C, Neve S, Holst D, Helledie T, Thomsen B, et al. Nuclear receptor corepressor-dependent repression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor delta-mediated transactivation. Biochem J. 2002;363:157-65 pubmed
    ..strongly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR delta, whereas interactions with the ligand-binding domains of PPAR gamma and PPAR alpha were significantly weaker...
  64. Vogel U, Christensen J, Wallin H, Friis S, Nexø B, Raaschou Nielsen O, et al. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory response and interaction with NSAID use or smoking in relation to lung cancer risk in a prospective study. Mutat Res. 2008;639:89-100 pubmed publisher
    ..p for interaction was 3 x 10(-6) for COX-2 A-1195G and 9 x 10(-5) for PPARgamma2 Pro(12)Ala. The results suggest that NSAID use may modify risk of lung cancer differently depending on the genotype. ..
  65. Galgani A, Valdes A, Erlich H, Mano C, Cheng S, Petrone A, et al. Homozygosity for the Ala allele of the PPAR?2 Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Dis Markers. 2010;29:259-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In this case-control study, homozygosity for the Ala allele at codon 12 of the PPAR?2 gene resulted in reduced risk of CAD. This is consistent with reports from previous studies focusing on atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. ..
  66. Wang Y, Liu C. Quantitative evaluation of common polymorphism (rs1801282) in the PPAR?2 gene and hypertension susceptibility. Gene. 2012;502:159-62 pubmed publisher
    ..63, 95%CI 0.46-0.86) but not among Caucasians (Ala/Ala+Pro/Ala vs. Pro/Pro: OR=0.72, 95%CI 0.38-1.38). The results indicated the significant association of PPAR?2 rs1801282 polymorphism with hypertension susceptibility among East Asians. ..
  67. Papadaki I, Mylona E, Giannopoulou I, Markaki S, Keramopoulos A, Nakopoulou L. PPARgamma expression in breast cancer: clinical value and correlation with ERbeta. Histopathology. 2005;46:37-42 pubmed
    To examine the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in invasive breast carcinoma in relation to known clinicopathological features, ERbeta, and relapse-free and overall patient survival...
  68. Ghosh A, Bhattacharyya S, Wei J, Kim S, Barak Y, Mori Y, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma abrogates Smad-dependent collagen stimulation by targeting the p300 transcriptional coactivator. FASEB J. 2009;23:2968-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological activation of PPAR-gamma thus may represent a novel therapeutic approach to target p300-dependent TGF-beta profibrotic responses such as stimulation of collagen gene expression. ..
  69. Kono T, Ahn G, Moss D, Gann L, Zarain Herzberg A, Nishiki Y, et al. PPAR-? activation restores pancreatic islet SERCA2 levels and prevents ?-cell dysfunction under conditions of hyperglycemic and cytokine stress. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:257-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that pioglitazone modulates SERCA2b expression through direct transcriptional regulation of the gene and indirectly through prevention of CDK5-induced phosphorylation of PPAR-?. ..
  70. Ghoussaini M, Meyre D, Lobbens S, Charpentier G, Clement K, Charles M, et al. Implication of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma 2 gene in type 2 diabetes and obesity in the French population. BMC Med Genet. 2005;6:11 pubmed
    ..In contrast, we confirm a contribution of the PPAR-gamma 2 Pro12 allele in the genetic risk forT2D, especially in obese subjects, where this allele worsens insulin resistanceand increases fasting insulin levels. ..
  71. Soriguer F, Morcillo S, Cardona F, Rojo Martinez G, de la Cruz Almaraz M, Ruiz de Adana M, et al. Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARG2 gene is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and peripheral insulin sensitivity in a population with a high intake of oleic acid. J Nutr. 2006;136:2325-30 pubmed
    Activation of the PPAR gamma 2 gene (PPARG2) improves the action of insulin and its lipid metabolism...
  72. Tonjes A, Scholz M, Loeffler M, Stumvoll M. Association of Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma with Pre-diabetic phenotypes: meta-analysis of 57 studies on nondiabetic individuals. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2489-97 pubmed
    ..Meta-analysis of Ala/Ala homozygotes more clearly demonstrated the association with greater insulin sensitivity of carriers of the Ala allele. ..
  73. Reka A, Kurapati H, Narala V, Bommer G, Chen J, Standiford T, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation inhibits tumor metastasis by antagonizing Smad3-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010;9:3221-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, with the low toxicity profile of PPAR-? ligands, our data show that these ligands may serve as potential therapeutic agents to inhibit metastasis. ..
  74. Franck N, Länne T, Astrand O, Engvall J, Lindstrom T, Ostgren C, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors related to the PPAR? Pro12Ala polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes are gender dependent. Blood Press. 2012;21:122-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences according to gender of the ALA isoform in type 2 diabetes deserve further attention. ..
  75. Patel H, Truant R, Rachubinski R, Capone J. Activity and subcellular compartmentalization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha are altered by the centrosome-associated protein CAP350. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:175-86 pubmed
  76. Burgermeister E, Seger R. MAPK kinases as nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttles for PPARgamma. Cell Cycle. 2007;6:1539-48 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulates genes involved in differentiation, metabolism and immunity...
  77. Estivalet A, Leiria L, Dora J, Rheinheimer J, Bouças A, Maia A, et al. D2 Thr92Ala and PPAR?2 Pro12Ala polymorphisms interact in the modulation of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19:825-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that these polymorphisms interact in the IR modulation, which may constitute a potential therapeutic target. ..
  78. Song M, Salam N, Roufogalis B, Huang T. Lycium barbarum (Goji Berry) extracts and its taurine component inhibit PPAR-?-dependent gene transcription in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: Possible implications for diabetic retinopathy treatment. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;82:1209-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PPAR-? activation by L. barbarum extract is associated with its taurine content and may explain at least in part its use in diabetic retinopathy progression...
  79. Akhmetov I, Popov D, Mozhaĭskaia I, Missina S, Astratenkova I, Vinogradova O, et al. [Association of regulatory genes polymorphisms with aerobic and anaerobic performance of athletes]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2007;93:837-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, PPARA G, PPARG Ala, PPARD C and PGCIA Gly alleles can be considered as genetic markers associated with enhanced physical performance. ..
  80. Kumar A, Piedrafita F, Reynolds W. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands regulate myeloperoxidase expression in macrophages by an estrogen-dependent mechanism involving the -463GA promoter polymorphism. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:8300-15 pubmed
    ..Here we show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists strongly regulate MPO gene expression through the AluRRE...
  81. Franks P, Jablonski K, Delahanty L, Hanson R, Kahn S, Altshuler D, et al. The Pro12Ala variant at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene and change in obesity-related traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Diabetologia. 2007;50:2451-60 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), encoded by the PPARG gene, regulates insulin sensitivity and adipogenesis, and may bind polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and thiazolidinediones in a ligand-dependent manner...
  82. Bilban M, Haslinger P, Prast J, Klinglmüller F, Woelfel T, Haider S, et al. Identification of novel trophoblast invasion-related genes: heme oxygenase-1 controls motility via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1000-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological inhibition of PPARgamma abrogated the inhibitory effects of HO-1 on trophoblast migration...
  83. Karbiener M, Fischer C, Nowitsch S, Opriessnig P, Papak C, Ailhaud G, et al. microRNA miR-27b impairs human adipocyte differentiation and targets PPARgamma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:247-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of miR-27b blunted induction of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha, two key regulators of adipogenesis, during early onset of adipogenesis and repressed adipogenic ..
  84. Ridker P, Cook N, Cheng S, Erlich H, Lindpaintner K, Plutzky J, et al. Alanine for proline substitution in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 (PPARG2) gene and the risk of incident myocardial infarction. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:859-63 pubmed
    ..A common alanine (A) for proline (P) substitution at codon 12 in the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma-2 gene (PPARG2) has been associated with reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  85. Meigs J, Shrader P, Sullivan L, McAteer J, Fox C, Dupuis J, et al. Genotype score in addition to common risk factors for prediction of type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:2208-19 pubmed publisher
    ..A genotype score based on 18 risk alleles predicted new cases of diabetes in the community but provided only a slightly better prediction of risk than knowledge of common risk factors alone. ..
  86. Mook Kanamori D, Steegers E, Uitterlinden A, Moll H, van Duijn C, Hofman A, et al. Breast-feeding modifies the association of PPARgamma2 polymorphism Pro12Ala with growth in early life: the Generation R Study. Diabetes. 2009;58:992-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect may be influenced by breast-feeding duration. Further studies should replicate these findings, identify the underlying mechanisms, and assess whether these effects persist into later life. ..
  87. Lawrence T, Natoli G. Transcriptional regulation of macrophage polarization: enabling diversity with identity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011;11:750-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge of transcriptional and chromatin-mediated control of macrophage polarization in physiology and disease. ..
  88. Stefan N, Fritsche A, Haring H, Stumvoll M. Effect of experimental elevation of free fatty acids on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in healthy carriers of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator--activated receptor-gamma2 gene. Diabetes. 2001;50:1143-8 pubmed
    ..8). In conclusion, these results provide evidence that the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma2 gene might be involved in a differential regulation of insulin secretion in response to increased FFAs in humans. ..
  89. Tan G, Neville M, Liverani E, Humphreys S, Currie J, Dennis L, et al. The in vivo effects of the Pro12Ala PPARgamma2 polymorphism on adipose tissue NEFA metabolism: the first use of the Oxford Biobank. Diabetologia. 2006;49:158-68 pubmed
  90. Li X, Kimura H, Hirota K, Sugimoto H, Kimura N, Takahashi N, et al. Hypoxia reduces the expression and anti-inflammatory effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in human proximal renal tubular cells. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:1041-51 pubmed
    ..Hypoxia-induced loss of function of PPAR-gamma reduces anti-inflammatory effects of PPAR-gamma activation, possibly modulating inflammatory responses in the diseased kidney. ..