Gene Symbol: CELA3B
Description: chymotrypsin like elastase family member 3B
Alias: CBPP, ELA3B, chymotrypsin-like elastase family member 3B, cholesterol-binding pancreatic protease, elastase 3B, pancreatic, elastase IIIB, elastase-3B, fecal elastase 1, pancreatic elastase 1, pancreatic endopeptidase E, protease E, proteinase E
Species: human
Products:     CELA3B

Top Publications

  1. Cohen A. The interaction of alpha-1-antitrypsin with chymotrypsin, trypsin and elastase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975;391:193-200 pubmed
    ..The variable susceptibility of the enzyme to blockage of the inhibition by low concentrations of p-dioxane suggested that hydrophobic bonds may be important in the interaction with alpha-1-antitrypsin. ..
  2. Zhou H, Sziegoleit A, Fischer H. Immunocytochemical localization of elastase 1 in human pancreas. Histochem Cell Biol. 1995;103:103-9 pubmed
    By light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry the distribution is described of human pancreatic elastase 1 (E1) during ontogenesis, in adults, in cases of acute and chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatic ischaemia as well as ..
  3. Cade A, Walters M, McGinley N, Firth J, Brownlee K, Conway S, et al. Evaluation of fecal pancreatic elastase-1 as a measure of pancreatic exocrine function in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2000;29:172-6 pubmed
    ..The low values in the first 2 weeks in some normal and premature infants, and the persisting normal values in PS infants, make the fecal EL-1 test unsuitable for neonatal CF screening. ..
  4. Cavalot F, Bonomo K, Perna P, Bacillo E, Salacone P, Gallo M, et al. Pancreatic elastase-1 in stools, a marker of exocrine pancreas function, correlates with both residual beta-cell secretion and metabolic control in type 1 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:2052-4 pubmed
  5. Hietaranta A, Mustonen H, Puolakkainen P, Haapiainen R, Kemppainen E. Proinflammatory effects of pancreatic elastase are mediated through TLR4 and NF-kappaB. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323:192-6 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that pancreatic elastase-induced proinflammatory effects are mediated by TLR4 and NF-kappaB in human myeloid cells. ..
  6. Vujasinovic M, Valente R, Maier P, von Beckerath V, Haas S, Arnelo U, et al. Diagnosis, treatment and long-term outcome of autoimmune pancreatitis in Sweden. Pancreatology. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Only one-quarter of patients exhibit on imaging the characteristic "sausage-like" pancreas (diffuse enlargement), approximately three-quarters had a focal mass that could be misdiagnosed as pancreatic malignancy. ..
  7. Gianotti L, Besselink M, Sandini M, Hackert T, Conlon K, Gerritsen A, et al. Nutritional support and therapy in pancreatic surgery: A position paper of the International Study Group on Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS). Surgery. 2018;164:1035-1048 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of this position paper is the consensus reached on the topic. Concentrating on nutritional support and therapy is of utmost value in pancreatic surgery for both short- and long-term outcomes. ..
  8. Tóth A, Szabo A, Hegyi E, Hegyi P, Sahin Toth M. Detection of human elastase isoforms by the ScheBo Pancreatic Elastase 1 Test. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017;312:G606-G614 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to clarify which human pancreatic elastase isoforms are detected by the ScheBo Pancreatic Elastase 1 Stool Test and whether naturally occurring genetic variants influence the performance of this test...
  9. Smits M, Tonneijck L, Muskiet M, Hoekstra T, Kramer M, Pieters I, et al. Cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects of incretin-based therapies: an acute and 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, mechanistic intervention trial in type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open. 2015;5:e009579 pubmed publisher
    ..The study is approved by the local Ethics Review Board (VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam) and conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice. NCT01744236. ..

More Information


  1. Borbély Y, Plebani A, Kröll D, Ghisla S, Nett P. Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2016;12:790-794 pubmed publisher
    ..Prevalence of EPI after dRYGB (48%) and pRYGB (19%) is of clinical importance. There was no significant difference in absolute or relative limb lengths between EPI and non-EPI groups after dRYGB. ..
  2. Lim J, Park J, Yoon D. Preoperative fecal elastase-1 is a useful prognostic marker following curative resection of pancreatic cancer. HPB (Oxford). 2017;19:388-395 pubmed publisher
    ..001, P = 0.017, P = 0.038, respectively). FE-1 is a simple and non-invasive predictive clinical marker for prognosis of pancreatic cancer after attempted curative resection. ..
  3. Joshi R, Liu S, Brown M, Young S, Batie M, Kofron J, et al. Stretch regulates expression and binding of chymotrypsin-like elastase 1 in the postnatal lung. FASEB J. 2016;30:590-600 pubmed publisher
    ..The stretch-dependent expression and binding kinetics of Cela1 indicate an important role in stretch-dependent remodeling of the peripheral lung during development and regeneration. ..
  4. Gheorghe C, Seicean A, Saftoiu A, Tantau M, Dumitru E, Jinga M, et al. Romanian guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2015;24:117-23 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also indicated in patients with celiac disease, who have chronic diarrhea (in spite of gluten-free diet), and in patients with cystic fibrosis with proven EPI. ..
  5. Rathmann W, Haastert B, Oscarsson J, Berglind N, Wareham N. Inverse association of HbA1c with faecal elastase 1 in people without diabetes. Pancreatology. 2015;15:620-5 pubmed publisher
    ..6% (≤37.7 mmol/mol) (6.1% vs. 1.4%; p = 0.004). The present study suggests that pancreatic exocrine dysfunction might be an early disturbance that develops in parallel with hyperglycemia. ..
  6. Walkowiak J, Glapa A, Nowak J, Bober L, Rohovyk N, Wenska Chyży E, et al. Pancreatic Elastase-1 Quick Test for rapid assessment of pancreatic status in cystic fibrosis patients. J Cyst Fibros. 2016;15:664-8 pubmed publisher
    ..8 and 90.5% in CF patients. Pancreatic Elastase-1 Quick Test™ proves to be a rapid and reliable option to qualitatively evaluate pancreatic function for diagnostic purposes in a clinical setting of CF care. ..
  7. Vanga R, Tansel A, Sidiq S, El Serag H, Othman M. Diagnostic Performance of Measurement of Fecal Elastase-1 in Detection of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;16:1220-1228.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in these patients, an abnormal level of elastase-1 (below 200 mcg/g) has a high false-positive rate. ..
  8. Weitgasser R, Abrahamian H, Clodi M, Zlamal Fortunat S, Hammer H. [Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and diabetes mellitus]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2016;128 Suppl 2:S163-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A pancreatogenic diabetes, also termed as type 3c diabetes, has not necessarily to be treated with insulin, often-at least initially-treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs is sufficient. ..
  9. Bodewes F, Verkade H, Wilschanski M. Gastroenterological endpoints in drug trials for cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:S18-S22 pubmed publisher
    ..Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:S18-S22. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  10. Tu J, Zhang J, Ke L, Yang Y, Yang Q, Lu G, et al. Endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after acute pancreatitis: long-term follow-up study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2017;17:114 pubmed publisher
    ..2% of patients developed severe and mild to moderate exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, respectively. The extent of pancreatic necrosis>50%, WON and insulin resistance were the independent risk factors of new onset diabetes after AP. ..
  11. Campbell J, Sanders D, Francis K, Kurien M, Lee S, Taha H, et al. Should we Investigate Gastroenterology Patients for Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency? A Dual Centre UK Study. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2016;25:303-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Intervening with lifestyle advice such as smoking cessation and minimising alcohol intake could improve outcomes. In addition, up to 80% of patients with low faecal elastase respond to supplementation. ..
  12. Naffouje S, Salti G. Transient Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: First Report of an Unrecognized Complication of Cytoreductive Surgery and HIPEC. Anticancer Res. 2018;38:2353-2358 pubmed
    ..In our patients with refractory diarrhea and low FE1, PERT provided immediate symptomatic relief. The biological basis of this phenomenon remains unclear and warrants further investigation. ..
  13. Smits M, Tonneijck L, Muskiet M, Kramer M, Pieters van den Bos I, Vendrik K, et al. Pancreatic Effects of Liraglutide or Sitagliptin in Overweight Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Diabetes Care. 2017;40:301-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Apart from a minimal sitagliptin-induced increase in intraduodenal fluid secretion, pancreatic exocrine function was unaffected. The long-term clinical consequences of these discrete changes require further study. ..
  14. Hart P, Conwell D. Diagnosis of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2015;13:347-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional research is needed to identify a more convenient means of accurately diagnosing at all stages of EPI. ..
  15. Joshi R, Heinz A, Fan Q, Guo S, Monia B, Schmelzer C, et al. Role for Cela1 in Postnatal Lung Remodeling and AAT-deficient Emphysema. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..AAT is an important regulator of this process. Our findings provide proof-of-concept for the development of anti-Cela1 therapies to prevent and/or treat AAT-deficient emphysema. ..
  16. Rathmann W, Haastert B, Oscarsson J, Berglind N, Lindkvist B, Wareham N. Association of faecal elastase 1 with non-fasting triglycerides in type 2 diabetes. Pancreatology. 2016;16:563-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Marked loss of exocrine pancreatic function had the opposite effect, resulting in higher levels of plasma triglycerides. ..
  17. Kubota K, Inaba S, Nakano R, Watanabe M, Sakurai H, Fukushima Y, et al. Identification of activating enzymes of a novel FBPase inhibitor prodrug, CS-917. Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2015;3:e00138 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified cathepsin A (CTSA) and elastase 3B (ELA3B) as CS-917 esterases in the small intestine by mass spectrometry, whereas we found CTSA and ..
  18. Drzymała Czyż S, Krzyżanowska P, Koletzko B, Nowak J, Miśkiewicz Chotnicka A, Moczko J, et al. Determinants of Serum Glycerophospholipid Fatty Acids in Cystic Fibrosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..They seem to be caused by both metabolic disturbances and independent clinical risk factors. Further research into the influence of CFTR mutations on fat metabolism and desaturases' activity is warranted. ..
  19. Naik H, Natarajan B, Stansky E, Ahlman M, Teague H, Salahuddin T, et al. Severity of Psoriasis Associates With Aortic Vascular Inflammation Detected by FDG PET/CT and Neutrophil Activation in a Prospective Observational Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35:2667-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Psoriasis increased neutrophil activation and neutrophil markers, and S100A8/A9 was related to both skin disease severity and vascular inflammation. ..
  20. Pezzilli R. Exocrine pancreas involvement in celiac disease: a review. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2014;8:167-72 pubmed
    ..b>Fecal elastase 1-determination in celiacs may be useful in detecting and curing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency especially ..
  21. Kim N, Gu J, Yoo H, Han S, Kim Y, Nam Goong I, et al. Contact system activation and high thrombin generation in hyperthyroidism. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017;176:583-589 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated that contact system activation and abundant NET formation occurred in the high thrombin generation state in hyperthyroidism and were correlated with free T4 level. ..
  22. Sun X, Olivier A, Yi Y, Pope C, Hayden H, Liang B, et al. Gastrointestinal pathology in juvenile and adult CFTR-knockout ferrets. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:1309-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these studies demonstrate that the CF ferret model develops gastrointestinal pathology similar to CF patients. ..
  23. Boros E, Szabó A, Zboray K, Héja D, Pál G, Sahin Tóth M. Overlapping Specificity of Duplicated Human Pancreatic Elastase 3 Isoforms and Archetypal Porcine Elastase 1 Provides Clues to Evolution of Digestive Enzymes. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:2690-2702 pubmed publisher
    ..The human pancreas does not express CELA1 but secretes two CELA3 isoforms, CELA3A and CELA3B. The reasons for the CELA3 duplication and the substrate preferences of the duplicated isoforms are unclear...
  24. Ziegler J, Maas C, Bernhard W, Arand J, Poets C, Franz A. Retrospective cohort analysis on pancreatic enzyme substitution in very low birthweight infants with postnatal growth failure. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2018;103:F485-F489 pubmed publisher
    ..No adverse effects were noted. PES in selected VLBW infants with growth failure despite intensified enteral nutritional support was associated with a significant increase in weight gain in the first 7 days of PES.k. ..
  25. Haas S, Krins S, Knauerhase A, Löhr M. Altered bone metabolism and bone density in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. JOP. 2015;16:58-62 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Patients with chronic pancreatitis have osteoporosis, along with abnormal bone metabolism and reduced bone mineral density as measured by DXA and X-ray. PERT is associated with less osteopathy. ..
  26. Chowdhury S, Kurien R, Ramachandran A, Joseph A, Simon E, Dutta A, et al. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: Comparing fecal elastase 1 with 72-h stool for fecal fat estimation. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2016;35:441-444 pubmed
    ..In this study, we aimed to assess fecal elastase 1 (FE1) as an alternate to FFE for the diagnosis of PEI...
  27. Lindkvist B, Nilsson C, Kvarnström M, Oscarsson J. Importance of pancreatic exocrine dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized crossover study. Pancreatology. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma levels of EPA and DHA after the intake of esterified versus free EPA and DHA did not correlate with FE-1 levels. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02370537. ..
  28. Bartels R, Meyer S, Stehmann T, Bourdon C, Bandsma R, Voskuijl W. Both Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency and Signs of Pancreatic Inflammation Are Prevalent in Children with Complicated Severe Acute Malnutrition: An Observational Study. J Pediatr. 2016;174:165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implications for standard rehabilitation treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition who may benefit from pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. ISRCTN.com: 13916953. ..
  29. Vujasinovic M, Tepes B, Vujkovac B, Cokan Vujkovac A, Tretjak M, Korat V. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is not a cause of abdominal complaints in patients with Fabry disease. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2015;127:931-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a potential effect of ERT on EPI cannot be excluded. Further studies are necessary to determine the aetiology, especially in the group of naïve male patients. ..
  30. Nanno Y, Toyama H, Zen Y, Akita M, Ando Y, Mizumoto T, et al. Serum Elastase 1 Level as a Risk Factor for Postoperative Recurrence in Patients with Well-Differentiated Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms. Ann Surg Oncol. 2018;25:3358-3364 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Our data provide the first evidence that high preoperative elastase 1 levels may be a risk factor for postoperative recurrence in patients with resectable PanNETs. ..
  31. Widodo A, Timan I, Bardosono S, Winarta W, Prasetyo D, Firmansyah A. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in malnourished children and those with persistent diarrhoeae. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25:S57-S61 pubmed publisher
    ..Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is found in children with persistent diarrhoea. Children with combined persistent diarrhoea and malnutrition have the lowest FE-1, to which persistent diarrhea has the most significant contribution. ..
  32. Tahtaci M, Köseoğlu H, Alisik M, Tayfur Yürekli Ö, Tahtaci G, Erel O, et al. Association of Low Fecal Elastase-1 and Non-Ulcer Dyspepsia. J Clin Med. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluation for the presence of EPI can be a cost effective approach in management of refractory patients during the process of ruling out organic reasons. ..
  33. Hac S, Pienkowska J, Madejewska I, Łaski D, Kostro J, Mroczkowski P, et al. Pancreatic remnant fate. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2015;74:56-60 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no correlation of pancreatic exo- or endocrine insufficiency with the volume of pancreatic remnant or the kind of surgery or anastomosis performed. ..
  34. González Sánchez V, Amrani R, Gonzalez V, Trigo C, Pico A, de Madaria E. Diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in chronic pancreatitis: 13C-Mixed Triglyceride Breath Test versus Fecal Elastase. Pancreatology. 2017;17:580-585 pubmed publisher
    ..FE-1 and TGBT showed similar results for the diagnosis of EPI in CP. In non-operated CP patients, TGBT does not offer any advantage to FE-1 but in operated CP patients TGBT seems a more accurate test. ..
  35. Hollemans R, Hallensleben N, Mager D, Kelder J, Besselink M, Bruno M, et al. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency following acute pancreatitis: Systematic review and study level meta-analysis. Pancreatology. 2018;18:253-262 pubmed publisher
    ..Alcoholic etiology and severe and necrotizing pancreatitis are associated with higher risk of PEI. The prevalence of PEI may change as time of follow-up increases. ..
  36. Stella N, Callaghan J, Zhang L, Brothers K, Kowalski R, Huang J, et al. SlpE is a calcium-dependent cytotoxic metalloprotease associated with clinical isolates of Serratia marcescens. Res Microbiol. 2017;168:567-574 pubmed publisher
    ..This gene was named serralysin-like protease E, SlpE, and was found in the majority (67%) of tested clinical isolates, but was absent from most tested non-..
  37. Rosenfeld M, Wainwright C, Higgins M, Wang L, MCKEE C, Campbell D, et al. Ivacaftor treatment of cystic fibrosis in children aged 12 to <24 months and with a CFTR gating mutation (ARRIVAL): a phase 3 single-arm study. Lancet Respir Med. 2018;6:545-553 pubmed publisher
    ..Improvements in biomarkers of pancreatic function suggest that ivacaftor preserves exocrine pancreatic function if started early. The study is continuing in infants younger than 12 months. Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated. ..
  38. Williams N, Moriatis M, Chambers G, Ooi C. The role, yield and cost of paediatric faecal elastase-1 testing. Pancreatology. 2016;16:551-4 pubmed publisher
    ..50 (AUD2015) for FTT with short-gut syndrome and $420.00 (AUD2015) for CF-related indications. Our study shows that for patients with isolated failure to thrive, FE1 testing is low yield and costly. ..
  39. Liu J, Peng L, Niu T, Wu Y, Li J, Wang F, et al. PIG7 promotes leukemia cell chemosensitivity via lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Oncotarget. 2016;7:4841-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Once this process was beyond the limit of intrinsic antagonism, it induced programmed cell death cooperatively via caspase-independent and caspase-dependent pathways. ..
  40. Wendorf P, Geyer R, Sziegoleit A, Linder D. Localization and characterization of the glycosylation site of human pancreatic elastase 1. FEBS Lett. 1989;249:275-8 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that only Asn-86 is glycosylated. ..
  41. Mann S, Mann V, Stracke H, Lange U, Klor H, Hardt P, et al. Fecal elastase 1 and vitamin D3 in patients with osteoporotic bone fractures. Eur J Med Res. 2008;13:68-72 pubmed
    ..if patients with osteoporotic bone fractures have exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, especially reduced fecal elastase 1, connected with lowered serum levels of vitamin D3 that could be relevant for predominant osteoporosis...
  42. Bartels R, Bourdon C, Potani I, Mhango B, van den Brink D, Mponda J, et al. Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Pediatr. 2017;190:85-92.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Mortality in severe acute malnutrition is associated with markers of poor digestive function. ISRCTN.com: 57423639. ..
    ..The results of the study suggest that the levels of apelin, TNF-α and elastase-1 are important diagnostic markers of CP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. ..
  44. Guy Crotte O, Barthe C, Basso D, Fournet B, Figarella C. Characterization of two glycoproteins of human pancreatic juice: P35, a truncated protease E and P19, precursor of protein X. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988;156:318-22 pubmed
    ..Its N-terminal amino acid sequence covering 33 residues revealed a strong homology with human protease E without the dipeptide Val-Val. Is P35 a protein homologous to the subunit III of bovine procarboxypeptidase A?
  45. Dominguez Munoz J, D Hardt P, Lerch M, Löhr M. Potential for Screening for Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency Using the Fecal Elastase-1 Test. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:1119-1130 pubmed publisher
    ..Although it cannot be considered the gold-standard method for the functional diagnosis of PEI, the advantages of the FE-1 test make it a very appropriate test for screening patients who may be at risk of this disorder. ..
  46. Moulard M, Kerfelec B, Mallet B, Chapus C. Identification of a procarboxypeptidase A-truncated protease E binary complex in human pancreatic juice. FEBS Lett. 1989;250:166-70 pubmed
    ..N-terminal sequence analysis revealed a complete homology between this protein and human protease E (HPE 1), except for the two strongly hydrophobic N-terminal residues (Val-Val) which are missing in G32...
  47. Kangrga R, Ignjatović S, Dragašević M, Jovičić S, Majkić Singh N. Pancreatic Elastase Levels in Feces As A Marker of Exocrine Pancreatic Function in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus. Lab Med. 2016;47:140-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrated a strong association of diabetes with low PE levels. ..
  48. Ewald N, Bretzel R, Fantus I, Hollenhorst M, Kloer H, Hardt P. Pancreatin therapy in patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency according to low fecal elastase 1 concentrations. Results of a prospective multi-centre trial. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2007;23:386-91 pubmed
    Recently, high prevalence of exocrine dysfunction in diabetic populations has been reported. Patients with fecal elastase 1 concentration (FEC) <100 microg/g have also been demonstrated to suffer from steatorrhea in about 60% of cases, ..
  49. Párniczky A, Hegyi E, Tóth A, Szucs A, Szentesi A, Vincze A, et al. Genetic Analysis of Human Chymotrypsin-Like Elastases 3A and 3B (CELA3A and CELA3B) to Assess the Role of Complex Formation between Proelastases and Procarboxypeptidases in Chronic Pancreatitis. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
    Human chymotrypsin-like elastases 3A and 3B (CELA3A and CELA3B) are the products of gene duplication and share 92% identity in their primary structure...
  50. Teichmann J, Mann S, Stracke H, Lange U, Hardt P, Bretzel R, et al. Parathormone levels and Vitamin D metabolism in female patients with various grades of fecal elastase 1 deficiency. Eur J Med Res. 2008;13:563-7 pubmed
    ..too few conclusive reports about conspicuous parathormone (PTH) and Vitamin D metabolism in patients with fecal elastase 1 deficiency or any connection of the calcium metabolism to the severity of exocrine pancreas insufficiency...
  51. Partelli S, Frulloni L, Minniti C, Bassi C, Barugola G, D Onofrio M, et al. Faecal elastase-1 is an independent predictor of survival in advanced pancreatic cancer. Dig Liver Dis. 2012;44:945-51 pubmed publisher
    ..59 P=0.023) resulted as independent predictors of survival in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. A low value of faecal elastase-1 is strongly correlated with a poor survival in advanced pancreatic cancer. ..
  52. Sperti C, Moletta L. Staging chronic pancreatitis with exocrine function tests: Are we better?. World J Gastroenterol. 2017;23:6927-6930 pubmed publisher
    ..On the contrary, EF-1 determination shows low sensitivity in detecting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in early stage of the disease...
  53. Sisman P, Avci M, Akkurt A, Sahin A, Gul O, Ersoy C, et al. The effect of primary hyperparathyroidism on pancreatic exocrine function. J Endocrinol Invest. 2018;41:293-298 pubmed publisher
    ..5). Chronic hypercalcemia in primary hyperparathyroidism did not decrease the fecal elastase level, which is an indirect indicator of chronic pancreatitis; therefore, chronic hypercalcemia in PHPT may not cause chronic pancreatitis. ..
  54. Murata A, Ogawa M, Fujimoto K, Kitahara T, Matsuda Y, Kosaki G. Radioimmunoassay of human pancreatic elastase 1. In vitro interaction of human pancreatic elastase 1 with serum protease inhibitors. Enzyme. 1983;30:29-37 pubmed
    A radioimmunoassay for determination of human pancreatic elastase 1 was developed and the interaction of pancreatic elastase 1 with serum protease inhibitors (alpha 2-macroglobulin and alpha 1-antitrypsin) was investigated...
  55. Sziegoleit A, Linder D, Schluter M, Ogawa M, Nishibe S, Fujimoto K. Studies on the specificity of the cholesterol-binding pancreatic proteinase and identification as human pancreatic elastase 1. Eur J Biochem. 1985;151:595-9 pubmed
    ..Kobayashi, Y. & Hirs, C. H. W. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 2460-2465] which resembles human pancreatic elastase 1. The immunological comparison indeed disclosed the identity of CBPP with human pancreatic elastase 1.
  56. Vujasinovic M, Valente R, Thorell A, Rutkowski W, Haas S, Arnelo U, et al. Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency after Bariatric Surgery. Nutrients. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..Appropriate pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy should be part of the treatment algorithm in patients with confirmed PEI or symptoms suggestive of this complication. ..
  57. Tani T, Ohsumi J, Mita K, Takiguchi Y. Identification of a novel class of elastase isozyme, human pancreatic elastase III, by cDNA and genomic gene cloning. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:1231-9 pubmed
    ..They strongly resembled cholesterol-binding pancreatic protease, suggesting that they may possess not only a digestive function but also function(s) related to cholesterol metabolism or transport in the intestine. ..
  58. Shen W, Fletcher T, Largman C. Primary structure of human pancreatic protease E determined by sequence analysis of the cloned mRNA. Biochemistry. 1987;26:3447-52 pubmed
    Although protease E was isolated from human pancreas over 10 years ago [Mallory, P. A., & Travis, J. (1975) Biochemistry 14, 722-729], its amino acid sequence and relationship to the elastases have not been established...
  59. Hahn J, Kerner W, Maisonneuve P, Lowenfels A, Lankisch P. Low fecal elastase 1 levels do not indicate exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in type-1 diabetes mellitus. Pancreas. 2008;36:274-8 pubmed publisher
    On the basis of very low fecal elastase 1 and very high fecal fat estimations, it has been claimed that exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is frequent in diabetic patients, and that in up to 40% of the patients, pancreatic enzyme ..
  60. Iovanna J, Keim V, Michel R, Dagorn J. Pancreatic gene expression is altered during acute experimental pancreatitis in the rat. Am J Physiol. 1991;261:G485-9 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that induction of pancreatitis is accompanied by transcriptional and posttranscriptional modifications resulting in rapid and massive rearrangement of the pattern of pancreatic protein gene expression...
  61. Anaizi A, Hart P, Conwell D. Diagnosing Chronic Pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:1713-1720 pubmed publisher
    ..Likely the best way at establishing a diagnosis in these patients is via pancreatic function testing in the setting of indeterminate EUS results. Biomarker studies of pancreas fluid may supplement diagnosis. ..
  62. Halloran C, Cox T, Chauhan S, Raraty M, Sutton R, Neoptolemos J, et al. Partial pancreatic resection for pancreatic malignancy is associated with sustained pancreatic exocrine failure and reduced quality of life: a prospective study. Pancreatology. 2011;11:535-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These patients had a tendency toward poorer QoL. FE-1 is a poor surrogate for diagnosing impaired fat absorption. Postoperative pancreatic enzyme replacement should be considered more routinely. and IAP. ..
  63. Gustavsson E, Ohlsson K, Olsson A. Interaction between human pancreatic elastase and plasma protease inhibitors. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1980;361:169-76 pubmed
    ..The elastase bound by alpha 2-macroglobulin retains its activity against low molecular weight substrates, while that bound by alpha 1-antitrypsin is enzymologically inactive. ..
  64. Aviles F, Pascual R, Salva M, Bonicel J, Puigserver A. Generation of a subunit III-like protein by autolysis of human and porcine proproteinase e in a binary complex with procarboxypeptidase A. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;163:1191-6 pubmed
    ..treatment of human and porcine proproteinase E, procarboxypeptidase A binary complexes gave rise to active proteinase E after removal of an 11-residue N-terminal activation peptide...
  65. Soares da Silva O, Lira de Oliveira R, de Carvalho Silva J, Converti A, Souza Porto T. Thermodynamic investigation of an alkaline protease from Aspergillus tamarii URM4634: A comparative approach between crude extract and purified enzyme. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;109:1039-1044 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative study on thermodynamic parameters of a serine protease produced by Aspergillus tamarii URM4634. ..
  66. Hye R, Peden E, O Connor T, Browne B, Dixon B, Schanzer A, et al. Human type I pancreatic elastase treatment of arteriovenous fistulas in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Vasc Surg. 2014;60:454-461.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..PRT-201 appeared safe. The primary efficacy end point was not met. However, both PRT-201 doses were associated with improved unassisted maturation. The 30-?g dose was associated with increased PP in the subset with RCF. ..
  67. Gao J, Zhu F, Lv S, Li Z, Ling Z, Gong Y, et al. Identification of pancreatic juice proteins as biomarkers of pancreatic cancer. Oncol Rep. 2010;23:1683-92 pubmed
    ..lipase-related protein-1 (PLRP1), and two proteins were down-regulated, chymotrypsinogen B (CTRB) precursor and elastase 3B (ELA3B) preproprotein...
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    ..Fecal fat excretion was increased in all patients with MODY3 with fecal elastase deficiency who were investigated, underscoring the potential clinical importance of the exocrine dysfunction. ..
  69. Shirasu Y, Takemura K, Yoshida H, Sato Y, Iijima H, Shimada Y, et al. Molecular cloning of complementary DNA encoding one of the human pancreatic protease E isozymes. J Biochem. 1988;104:259-64 pubmed
    We have cloned a DNA from a human pancreatic cDNA library using a cloned rat pancreatic elastase 1 cDNA as a probe, and determined its nucleotide sequence...
  70. Szabo A, Pilsak C, Bence M, Witt H, Sahin Toth M. Complex Formation of Human Proelastases with Procarboxypeptidases A1 and A2. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:17706-16 pubmed publisher
    ..in a systematic manner, we performed binding experiments using recombinant proelastases CELA2A, CELA3A, and CELA3B; chymotrypsinogens CTRB1, CTRB2, CTRC, and CTRL1; and procarboxypeptidases CPA1, CPA2, and CPB1...